Castings, forgings, and general supplies for erecting can be easily brought to the erecting shop from the other departments on trucks without the aid of motive power; so that the erecting and foundry cranes will do the entire lifting duty required in any but very large establishments.Next in order are strains. As the cutting action is the source of strains, and as the resistance offered by the cutting tools is as the length or width of the edges, it will be found in the present case that while other conditions thus far have pointed to small proportions, there is now a new one which calls for large proportions. In displacing the metal between teeth of three-quarters of an inch pitch, the cutting edge or the amount of surface acted upon is equal to a width of one inch and a half. It is true, the displacement may be small at each cut, but the strain is rather to be based upon the breadth of the acting edge than the actual displacement of metal, and we find here strains equal to the average duty of a large planing machine. This strain radiates from the cutting point as from a centre, falling on the supports of the work with a tendency to force it from the framing. Between the rack and the crank-shaft bearing, through the medium of the tool, cutter bar, connection, and crank pin, and in various directions and degrees, this strain may be followed by means of a simple diagram. Besides this cutting strain, there are none of importance; the tension of the belt, the side thrust in bearings, the strain from the angular thrust of the crank, and the end thrust of the tool, although not to be lost sight of, need not have much to do with problems of strength, proportion, and arrangement.Third. Combination machines can only be employed with success when one attendant performs all the operations, and when the change from one to another requires but little adjustment and re-arrangement.CHAPTER XXXII. SLOTTING MACHINES.Impact wheels, or those driven by the percussive force of water, including the class termed turbine water-wheels, are at this time generally employed for heads of all heights. 幸运28大小单双技巧 Machines and tools that operate by blows, such as hammers and drops, produce effect by the impact of a moving mass by force accumulated throughout a long range, and expending the sum of this accumulated force on an object. The reactive force not being communicated to nor resisted by the machine frames, is absorbed by the inertia of the mass which gave the blow; the machinery required in such operations being only a weight, with means to guide or direct it, and mechanism for connection with motive power. A hand-hammer, for example, accumulates and applies the force of the arm, and performs all the functions of a train of mechanism, yet consists only of a block of metal and a handle to guide it.Examining machines made by the best designers, it will be found that their dimensions bear but little if any reference to calculated strains, especially in machines involving rapid motion. Accidents destroy constants, and a draughtsman or designer who does not combine special and experimental knowledge with what he may learn from general sources, will find his services to be of but little value in actual practice.In a half century past all has changed; the application of the sciences, the utilisation of natural forces, manufacturing, the transportation of material, the preparation and diffusion of printed matter, and other great matters of human interest, have come to shape our laws, control commerce, establish new relations between people and countries—in short, has revolutionised the world. So rapid has been this change that it has outrun the powers of conception, and people waken as from a dream to find themselves governed by a new master.In cutting screws it is best not to refer to that mistaken convenience called a wheel list, usually stamped on some part of engine lathes to aid in selecting wheels. A screw to  be cut is to the lead screw on a lathe as the wheel on the screw is to the wheel on the spindle, and every workman should be familiar with so simple a matter as computing wheels for screw cutting, when there is but one train of wheels. Wheels for screw cutting may be computed not only quite as soon as read from an index, but the advantage of being familiar with wheel changes is very important in other cases, and frequently such combinations have to be made when there is not an index at hand.A safe rule will be to assume that machinery mainly used and seen by the skilled should be devoid of ornament, and that machinery seen mainly by the unskilled, or in public, should have some ornament. Steam fire engines, sewing machines, and works of a similar kind, which fall under the inspection of the unskilled, are usually arranged with more or less ornament. 5. Every part laid down has something to govern it that may be termed a "base"—some condition of function or position which, if understood, will suggest size, shape, and relation to other parts. By searching after a base for each and every part and detail, the draughtsman proceeds upon a regular system, continually maintaining a test of what is done. Every wheel, shaft, screw or piece of framing should be made with a clear view of the functions it has to fill, and there are, as before said, always reasons why such parts should be of a certain size, have such a speed of movement, or a certain amount of bearing surface, and so on. These reasons or conditions may be classed as expedient, important, or essential, and must be estimated accordingly. As claimed at the beginning, the designs of machines can only in a limited degree be determined by mathematical data. Leaving out all considerations of machine operation with which books have scarcely attempted to deal, we have only to refer to the element of strains to verify the general truth of the proposition.Although a system but recently developed, the employment of hydraulic machinery for transmitting and applying power has reached an extended application to a variety of purposes, and gives promise of a still more extensive use in future. Considered as a means of transmitting regularly a constant amount  of power, water apparatus is more expensive and inferior in many respects to belts or shafts, and its use must be traced to some special principle involved which adapts hydraulic apparatus to the performance of certain duties. This principle will be found to consist in storing up power in such a manner that it may be used with great force at intervals; and secondly, in the facilities afforded for multiplying force by such simple mechanism as pumps. An engine of ten-horse-power, connected with machinery by hydraulic apparatus, may provide for a force equal to one hundred horse-power for one-tenth part of the time, the power being stored up by accumulators in the interval; or in other words, the motive power acting continuously can be accumulated and applied at intervals as it may be required for raising weights, operating punches, compressive forging, or other work of an intermittent character. Hydraulic machinery employed for such purposes is more simple and inexpensive than gearing and shafts, especially in the application of a great force acting for a considerable distance, and where a cylinder and piston represent a degree of strength which could not be attained with twice the amount of detail, if gearing, screws, levers, or other devices were employed instead. It will scarcely be expected that any part of the present work, intended mainly for apprentice engineers, should relate to designing machines, yet there is no reason why the subject should not to some extent be treated of; it is one sure to engage more or less attention from learners, and the study of designing machines, if properly directed, cannot fail to be of advantage.Some makers of steam-hammers have so perfected the automatic class, that they may be instantly changed so as to work with either dead blows or elastic blows at pleasure, thereby combining all the advantages of both principles. This brings the steam-hammer where it is hard to imagine a want of farther improvement.There is, perhaps, no one who has achieved a successful experience as an engineer but will acknowledge the advantages derived from early efforts to generate original designs, and none who will not admit that if their first efforts had been more carefully directed, the advantages gained would have been greater. Tools should never be tempered by immersing their edges or cutting parts in the bath, and then allowing the heat to "run down" to attain a proper temper at the edge. I am well aware that this is attacking a general custom, but it is none the less wrong for that reason. Tools so hardened have a gradually diminishing temper from their point or edge, so that no part is properly tempered, and they require continual re-hardening, which spoils the steel; besides, the extreme edge, the only part which is tempered to a proper shade, is usually spoiled by heating and must be ground away to begin with. No latheman who has once had a set of tools tempered throughout by slow drawing, either in an oven, or on a hot plate, will ever consent to point hardening afterwards. A plate of iron, two to two and one-half inches thick, placed over the top of a tool dressing fire, makes a convenient arrangement for tempering tools, besides adding greatly to the convenience of slow heating, which is almost as important as slow drawing. The writer has by actual experiment determined that the amount of tool dressing  and tempering, to say nothing of time wasted in grinding tools, may in ordinary machine fitting be reduced one-third by "oven tempering."6. The diminished cost of generating power on a large scale, compared with a number of separate steam engines distributed over manufacturing districts. 幸运28大小单双技巧 CHAPTER XXXVI. SCREW-CUTTING.In compression processes no material is cut away as in cutting or grinding, the mass being forced into shape by dies or forms that give the required configuration. The action of compressing machines may be either intermittent, as in the case of rolling mills; percussive, as in steam hammers, where a great force acts throughout a limited distance; or gradual and sustained, as in press forging. Machines of application, for abrading or grinding, are constantly coming more into use; their main purpose being to cut or shape material too hard to be acted upon by compression or by cutting processes. It follows that the necessity for machines of this kind is in proportion to the amount of hard material which enters into manufactures; in metal work the employment of hardened steel and iron is rapidly increasing, and as a result, grinding machines have now a place among the standard machine tools of a fitting shop. The effect of tempering baths is as their conducting power; chemicals except as they may contribute to the conducting properties of a bath, may safely be disregarded. For baths, cold or ice water loaded with salt for extreme hardness, and warm oil for tools that are thin and do not require to be very hard, are the two extremes outside of which nothing is required in ordinary practice.Lastly, proportions; having estimated the cutting force required at one ton, although less than the actual strain in a machine of this kind, we proceed upon this to fix proportions,  beginning with the tool shank, and following back through the adjusting saddle, the cutting bar, connections, crank pins, shafts, and gear wheels to the belt. Starting again at the tool, or point of cutting, following through the supports of the rack, the jaws that clamp it, the saddle for the graduating adjustment, the connections with the main frame, and so on to the crank-shaft bearing a second time, dimensions may be fixed for each piece to withstand the strains without deflection or danger of breaking. Such proportions cannot, I am aware, be brought within the rules of ordinary practice by relying upon calculation alone to fix them, and no such course is suggested; calculation may aid, but cannot determine proportions in such cases; besides, symmetry, which cannot be altogether disregarded, modifies the form and sometimes the dimensions of various parts.6. Handling material in machine construction is one of the principal expenses to be dealt with; each time a piece is moved its cost is enhanced, and usually in a much greater degree than is supposed.An engineer may direct and control work without a knowledge of practical fitting, but such control is merely a commercial one, and cannot of course extend to mechanical details which are generally the vital part; the obedience that may thus be enforced in controlling others is not to be confounded with the respect which a superior knowledge of work commands. It may be assumed that the same conditions apply to the standards of a common planing machine, but the case is different; the upright framing is easily made strong enough by increasing its depth; but the strain upon running joints is as the distance from them at which a force is applied, or to employ a technical phrase, as the amount of overhang. With a moving platen the larger and heavier a piece to be planed, the more  firmly a platen is held down; and as the cross section of pieces usually increases with their depth, the result is that a planing machine properly constructed will act nearly as well on thick as thin pieces.It will scarcely be expected that any part of the present work, intended mainly for apprentice engineers, should relate to designing machines, yet there is no reason why the subject should not to some extent be treated of; it is one sure to engage more or less attention from learners, and the study of designing machines, if properly directed, cannot fail to be of advantage.Water-wheels or water-engines.In using ruling pens, they should be held nearly vertical, leaning just enough to prevent them from catching on the paper. Beginners have a tendency to hold pens at a low angle, and drag them on their side, but this will not produce clean sharp lines, nor allow the lines to be made near enough to the edges of square blades or set squares. A beginner, unless he exercises great care in the pencil-work of a drawing, will have the disappointment to find the paper soon becoming dirty from plumbago, and the pencil-lines crossing each other everywhere, so as to give the whole a slovenly appearance. He will also, unless he understands the nature of the operations in which he is engaged, make the mistake of regarding the pencil-work as an unimportant part, instead of constituting, as it does, the main drawing, and thereby neglect that accuracy which alone can make either a good-looking or a valuable one.8. The expense of the appliances of distribution and their maintenance. 幸运28大小单双技巧 When a tool is guided by turning on points, the movement is perfect, and the straightness or parallelism of holes bored in this manner is dependent only on the truth of the carriage movement. This plan of boring is employed for small steam cylinders, cylindrical valve seats, and in cases where accuracy is essential.An apprentice at first generally forms an exaggerated estimate of what he has to learn; it presents to his mind not only a great undertaking, but a kind of mystery, which he fears that he may not be able to master. The next stage is when he has made some progress, and begins to underrate the task before him, and imagine that the main difficulties are past, that he has already mastered all the leading principles of mechanics, which is, after all, but a "small matter." In a third stage an apprentice experiences a return of his first impressions as to the difficulties of his undertaking; he begins to see his calling as one that must involve endless detail, comprehending things which can only be studied in connection with personal experience; he sees "the horizon widen as it recedes," that he has hardly begun the task, instead of having completed it—even despairs of its final accomplishment. (1.) Describe the different modifications of screw-cutting machines.—(2.) What is gained by revolving the dies instead of the rod?—(3.) What is gained by expanding dies?—(4.) What is the difference between screws cut by chasing and those cut on a screw-cutting machine?Wind-wheels or pneumatic engines.An interesting study in connection with modern shaping machines is the principle of various devices called 'quick return' movements. Such devices consist of various modifications of slotted levers, and what is known as Whitworth's quick return motion.It is evident that when the parts of a machine are joined together, each piece which has contact on more than one side must have specific dimensions; it is farther evident that as many of the joints in a machine as are to accommodate the exigencies of construction must be without space, that is, they represent continued sections of what should be solid material, if it were possible to construct the parts in that manner. This also demands specific dimensions.