An old smith who has stood at the forge for a score of years will take the same interest in tempering processes that a novice will. When a piece is to be tempered which is liable to spring or break, and the risk is great, he will enter upon it with the same zeal and interest that he would have done when learning his trade.4. The cost of construction and durability.1. The most economical and effectual mechanism for handling is that which places the amount of force and rate of movement continually under the control of an operator.Another matter to be considered is that the engineering apprentice, in estimating what he will have to learn, must not lose sight of the fact that what qualifies an engineer of to-day will fall far short of the standard that another generation will fix, and of that period in which his practice will fall. This I mention because it will have much to do with the conceptions that a  learner will form of what he sees around him. To anticipate improvement and change is not only the highest power to which a mechanical engineer can hope to attain, but is the key to his success. 256幸运28预测 The first and, perhaps, the most important matter of all in founding engineering works is that of arrangement. As a commercial consideration affecting the cost of manipulation, and the expense of handling material, the arrangement of an establishment may determine, in a large degree, the profits that may be earned, and, as explained in a previous place, upon this matter of profits depends the success of such works.As remarked in a previous place, no one can expect to prepare successful designs for machinery, who does not understand the details of its construction; he should know how each piece is moulded, forged, turned, planed, or bored, and the relative cost of these processes by the different methods which may be adopted.3. Two elevations taken at right angles to each other, fix all points, and give all dimensions of parts that have their axis parallel to the planes on which the views are taken; but when a machine is complex, or when several parts lie in the same plane, three and sometimes four views are required to display all the parts in a comprehensive manner.A few years ago, or even at the present time, many school-books in use which treat of mechanics in connection with natural philosophy are so arranged as to hinder a learner from grasping a true conception of force, power, and motion; these elements were confounded with various agents of transmission, such as wheels, wedges, levers, screws, and so on. A learner was taught to call these things "mechanical powers," whatever that may mean, and to compute their power as mechanical elements. In this manner was fixed in the mind, as many can bear witness, an erroneous conception of the relations between power and the means for its transmission; the two things were confounded together, so that years, and often a lifetime, has not served to get rid of the idea of power and mechanism being the same. To such teaching can be traced nearly all the crude ideas of mechanics so often met with among those well informed in other matters. In the great change from empirical rules to proved constants, from special and experimental knowledge to the application of science  in the mechanic arts, we may, however, go too far. The incentives to substitute general for special knowledge are so many, that it may lead us to forget or underrate that part which cannot come within general rules.(1.) What is the difference between geometric and artistic drawing?—(2.) What is the most important operation in making a good drawing?—(3.) Into what three classes can working drawings be divided?—(4.) Explain the difference between elevations and plans.—(5.) To what extent in general practice is the proportion of parts and their arrangement in machines determined mathematically? In studying improvements with a view to practical gain, a learner can have no reasonable hope of accomplishing much in fields already gone over by able engineers, nor in demonstrating anything new in what may be called exhausted subjects, such as steam-engines or water-wheels; he should rather choose new and special subjects, but avoid schemes not in some degree confirmed by existing practice.This importance of shop processes in machine construction is generally realised by proprietors, but not thoroughly understood in all of its bearings; an apprentice may notice the continual effort that is made to augment the production of engineering-works, which is the same thing as shortening the processes.Marine and railway engineering have engrossed the best talent in the world; investigation and research has been expended upon these subjects in a degree commensurate with their importance, and it would be hard to suggest a single want in the many able text-books that have been prepared upon the subjects. Marine and railway engineering are sciences that may, in a sense, be separated from the ordinary constructive arts, and studied at the end of a course in mechanical engineering, but are hardly  proper subjects for an apprentice to take up at the beginning.(1.) What is gained by arranging a machine to perform several different operations?—(2.) What may be lost by such combination?—(3.) What is the main expense attending the operation of machine tools?—(4.) What kind of improvement in machine tools produces the most profitable result?—(5.) What are the principal causes which have led to machine combinations.Machine-drawing may in some respects be said to bear the same relation to mechanics that writing does to literature; persons may copy manuscript, or write from dictation, of what they do not understand; or a mechanical draughtsman may make drawings of a machine he does not understand; but neither such writing or drawing can have any value beyond that of ordinary labour. It is both necessary and expected that a draughtsman shall understand all the various processes of machine construction, and be familiar with the best examples that are furnished by modern practice. It was stated that to give a dead or stamp stroke, the valve must move and admit steam beneath the piston after the hammer has made a blow and stopped on the work, and that such a movement of the valve could not be imparted by any maintained connection between the hammer-head and valve. This problem is met by connecting the drop or hammer-head with some mechanism which will, by reason of its momentum, continue to 'move after the hammer-head stops.' This mechanism may consist of various devices. Messrs Massey in England, and Messrs Ferris & Miles in America, employ a swinging wiper bar , which is by reason of its weight or inertia retarded, and does not follow the hammer-head closely on the down stroke, but swings into contact and opens the valve after the hammer has come to a full stop.CHAPTER V. THE OBJECT OF MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.Considered as a mechanical agent, a hammer concentrates the power of the arms, and applies it in a manner that meets the requirements of various purposes. If great force is required, a long swing and slow blows accomplish tons; if but little force is required, a short swing and rapid blows will serve—the degree of force being not only continually at control, but also the direction in which it is applied. Other mechanism, if employed instead of hammers to perform a similar purpose, would require to be complicated  machines, and act in but one direction or in one plane.The reader, in order to better understand what is said, may keep in mind a common shaping machine with crank motion, a machine which nearly fills the requirements for cutting tooth racks. As remarked, the gauging system is particularly adapted to, or enabled by milling processes, and of course must have its greatest effect in branches of work directed to the production of uniform articles, such as clocks, watches, sewing-machines, guns, hand tools, and so on. That is, the direct effect on the cost of processes will be more apparent and easily understood in such branches of manufacture; yet in general engineering work, where each machine is more or less modified, and made to special plans, the commercial gain resulting from the use of gauges is considerable.Fourth. Machinery of transportation.The duplicate system has gradually made its way in locomotive engineering, and will no doubt extend to the whole of  railway equipment, as constants for dimensions are proved and agreed upon. 256幸运28预测 Screw-cutting machines may be divided into modifications as follows:—(1) Machines with running dies mounted in what is called the head; (2) Machines with fixed dies, in which motion is given to the rod or blank to be threaded; (3) Machines with expanding dies which open and release the screws when finished without running back; (4) Machines with solid dies, in which the screws have to be withdrawn by changing the motion of the driving gearing; making in all four different types.Civil engineering, when spoken of, will be assumed as referring to works that do not involve machine motion, nor the use of power, but deal with static forces, the strength, nature, and disposition of material under constant strains, or under measured strains, the durability and resistance of material, the construction of bridges, factories, roads, docks, canals, dams, and so on; also, levelling and surveying. This corresponds to the most common use of the term civil engineering in America, but differs greatly from its application in Europe, where civil engineering is understood as including machine construction, and where the term engineering is applied to ordinary manufacturing processes.First.—Durability, plans of construction and cost, which all amount to the same thing. To determine this point, there is to be considered the amount of use that the patterns are likely to serve, whether they are for standard or special machines, and the quality of the castings so far as affected by the patterns. A first-class pattern, framed to withstand moisture and rapping, may cost twice as much as another that has the same outline, yet the cheaper pattern may answer almost as well to form a few moulds as an expensive one.Steam-engines.To this classification may be added combination wheels, acting partly by the gravity and partly by the percussion force of the water, by impact combined with reaction, or by impact and maintained pressure. Presuming an engineering establishment to consist of one-storey buildings, and the main operations to be conducted on the ground level, the only vertical lifting to be performed will be in the erecting room, where the parts of machines are assembled. This room should be reached in every part by over-head travelling cranes, that cannot only be used in turning, moving, and placing the work, but in loading it upon cars or waggons. One result of the employment of over-head travelling cranes, often overlooked, is a saving of floor-room; in ordinary fitting, from one-third more to twice the number of workmen will find room in an erecting shop if a travelling-crane is employed, the difference being that, in moving pieces they may pass over the top of other pieces instead of requiring long open passages on the floor. So marked is this saving of room effected by over-head cranes, that in England, where they are generally employed, handling is not only less expensive and quicker, but the area of erecting floors is usually one-half as much as in America, where travelling-cranes are not employed.I do not refer to questions of mechanical construction, although the remark might be true if applied in this sense, but to the kind of devices that may be best employed in certain cases. I will, in connection with this subject of patterns and castings, suggest a plan of learning especially applicable in such cases, that of adopting a habit of imagining the manner of moulding, and the kind of pattern used in producing each casting that comes under notice. Such a habit becomes easy and natural in a short time, and is a sure means of acquiring an extended knowledge of patterns and moulding.These are but a few of many influences which tend to irregular cooling, and are described with a view of giving a clue from which other causes may be traced out. The want of uniformity in sections which tends to irregular cooling can often be avoided without much loss by a disposition of the metal with reference to cooling strains. This, so far as the extra metal required to give uniformity to or to balance the different sides of a casting, is a waste which engineers are sometimes loth to consent to, and often neglect in designs for moulded parts; yet, as before said, the difficulty of irregular cooling can in a great degree be counteracted by a proper distribution of the metal, without wasting, if the matter is properly understood. No one is prepared to make designs for castings who has not studied the subject of cooling strains as thoroughly as possible, from practical examples as well as by theoretical deductions.An apprentice must guard against the too common impression that the engine, cylinder, piston, valves, and so on, are the main parts of steam machinery, and that the boiler and furnace are only auxiliaries. The boiler is, in fact, the base of the whole, that part where the power is generated, the engine being merely an agent for transmitting power from the boiler to work that is performed. This proposition would, of course, be reached by any one in reasoning about the matter and following it to a conclusion, but the fact should be fixed in the mind at the beginning.Reciprocating tools are divided into those wherein the cutting movement is given to the tools, as in shaping and slotting machines, and machines wherein the cutting movement is given to the material to be planed, as in a common planing machine. Very strangely we find in general practice that machine tools for both the heaviest and the lightest class of work, such as shaping, and butting, operate upon the first principle, while pieces of a medium size are generally planed by being moved in contact with stationary tools.Starting again from the cutting point, and going the other way from the tool to the frame, there is, first, a clamped and stayed joint between the material and platen, next, a running joint between the platen and frame; this is all; one joint that is firm beyond any chance of movement, and a moving joint that is not held by adjustable gibs, but by gravity; a force which acts equally at all times, and is the most reliable means of maintaining a steady contact between moving parts. Screw-cutting is divided into two kinds, one where the blanks or pieces to be threaded are supported on centres, the tools held and guided independently of their bearing at the cutting edges, called chasing; the other process is where the blanks have no axial support, and are guided only by dies or cutting tools, called die-cutting.The permanent contraction of steel in tempering is as the degree of hardness imparted to it by the bath. 256幸运28预测 By examining the subject of applied mechanics and shop manipulation, a learner may see that the knowledge to be acquired by apprentices can be divided into two departments, that may be called general and special. General knowledge relating to tools, processes and operations, so far as their construction and action may be understood from general principles, and without special or experimental instruction. Special knowledge is that which  is based upon experiment, and can only be acquired by special, as distinguished from general sources.Among the improvements in machine fitting which have in recent years come into general use, is the employment of standard gauges, by means of which uniform dimensions are maintained, and within certain limits, an interchange of the parts of machinery is rendered possible.A learner will no doubt wonder why sand is used for moulding, instead of some more adhesive material like clay. If he is not too fastidious for the experiment, and will apply a lump of damp moulding sand to his mouth and blow his breath through the mass, the query will be solved. If it were not for the porous nature of sand-moulds they would be blown to pieces as soon as the hot metal entered them; not only because of the mechanical expansion of the gas, but often from explosion by combustion. Gas jets from moulds, as may be seen at any time when castings are poured, will take fire and burn the same as illuminating gas.The steam cranes of Mr Morrison, which resemble hydraulic cranes, except that steam instead of water is employed as a medium for transmitting force, combine all the advantages of hydraulic apparatus, except positive movement, and evade the loss of power that occurs in the use of water. The elasticity of the steam is found in practice to offer no obstacle to steady and accurate movement of a load, provided the mechanism is well constructed, while the loss of heat by radiation is but trifling.In operating by elastic blows, the steam piston is cushioned at both the up and down stroke, and the action of a steam-hammer corresponds to that of a helve trip-hammer, the steam filling the office of a vibrating spring; in this case a hammer gives a quick rebounding blow, the momentum being only in part  spent upon the work, and partly arrested by cushioning on the steam in the bottom of the cylinder under the piston.Civil engineering, in the meaning assumed for the term, has become almost a pure mathematical science. Constants are proved and established for nearly every computation; the strength and durability of materials, from long and repeated tests, has come to be well understood; and as in the case of machine tools, the uniformity of practice among civil engineers, and the perfection of their works, attest how far civil engineering has become a true science, and proves that the principles involved in the construction of permanent works are well understood. 2. Plans of adaptation and arrangement of the component parts of the machinery, or organisation as it may be called.Irregularity of cooling may be the result of unequal conducting power in different parts of a mould or cores, or it may be  from the varying dimensions of the castings, which contain heat as their thickness, and give it off in the same ratio. As a rule, the drag or bottom side of a casting cools first, especially if a mould rests on the ground, and there is not much sand between the castings and the earth; this is a common cause of unequal cooling, especially in large flat pieces. Air being a bad conductor of heat, and the sand usually thin on the cope or top side, the result is that the top of moulds remain quite hot, while at the bottom the earth, being a good conductor, carries off the heat and cools that side first, so that the iron 'sets' first on the bottom, afterwards cooling and contracting on the top, so that castings are warped and left with inherent strains.