Evelyn is one. She is an orphan of Canadian extraction. Placed by a children’s aid society in some six temporary homes, she readily drifted into delinquency. For two years for her it was a succession of institutions, tempered by probation, after she came under the court. Then El Retiro was established. Her health was so delicate that she was sent there for observation for an?mia. There her central ability was discovered—leadership, and her chief interest the design and manufacture of clothing. On graduation she became president of the alumn? group of girls and went to live at the club house. She began earning $22.00 per week as designer and shortly plans to open a shop of her own. As president of the alumn? organization she has succeeded in doing what no probation officer has done—the voluntary reporting of each girl’s change of work, address, and new friends. If they are out of work through indifference or indolence, her fluent scorn and her own stylish costume act on them as a spur. Her activity has two major outlets, leadership and craftsmanship.One of the most important powers gained during the evolution of animal life is the ability to make decisions from within instead of having them imposed from without. Very low forms of life do not make decisions, as we understand this term, but are pushed and pulled by chemical substances, heat, light, etc., much as iron filings are attracted or repelled by a magnet. They do tend to behave properly in given conditions—a group of small crustaceans will flee as in a panic if a bit of strychnia is placed in the basin containing them and will rush toward a drop of beef juice like hogs crowding around swill—but they do this as an expression of organic affinity for the one substance and repugnance for the other, and not as an expression of choice or “free will.” There are, so to speak, rules of behavior but these represent a sort of fortunate mechanistic adjustment of the organism to typically recurring situations, and the organism cannot change the rule.April 1, 1853.—Before I go to school every morning I read three chapters in the Bible. I read three every day and five on Sunday and that takes me through the Bible in a year. Those I read this morning were the first, second, and third chapters of Job. The first was about Eliphaz reproveth Job; second, benefit of God’s correction; third, Job justifieth his complaint. I then learned a text to say at school. I went to school at quarter to nine and recited my text and we had prayers and then proceeded with the business of the day. Just before school was out, we recited in “Science of Things Familiar”, and in Dictionary, and then we had calisthenics.The next summer I did not make out so well and could not afford to send my wife to the country, but she absolutely demanded to be sent even if I had to “hang and bring.” ... My protestations and explanations were of no avail. She went to Atlantic City and hired a room in the same hotel....Tell me, I beg you, dear editor, what can such a mama do that her dear child shall not become a lonely orphan. For I feel that I cannot continue long as it is. My strength is not holding out and a time must come when no strength to live will remain in me.111“Officer: I found out something since then. When she came from the House of the Good Shepherd she worked at housework and took two rings there and silk stockings and underwear. pc加拿大28源码 February 4, 1914, Mrs. Meyer in office. Says the work is too hard at the present situation and she is not earning enough to feed the children. Mary has had to give her money and she is ashamed and sorry. She feels too nervous to work and wants United Charities to get Mr. Meyer out of asylum to support her. Jennie, her niece, took her to visit him and she found him nicely dressed and sober, doing teaming work. He promised never to drink and to support the family.I began to plan a gala meal—bologna and tea ... but first I decided to go to the candy store for some “lemon and strawberry mixed” soda for three cents. As I walked up the flights of stairs to my room to wash up, I heard a mother’s scolding and a child’s weeping as it was being whipped by its mother. She was punishing him for losing the dollar on the way to the grocery. The poor boy was crying with his last strength and it could break anybody’s heart.Pretty Helen McGinnis, the convicted auto vamp of Chicago, asked the question seriously. She has just got an order for a new trial on the charge of luring Martin Metzler to Forest Reserve Park, where he was beaten and robbed. The girl went on:My father remained alone and dejected and was forced to marry. I now have a stepmother and I am staying away and I feel that I am falling. I feel that my body is fading along with my soul. When I look at my companions, who shun me, who do not want to know me on account of my immoral life, I envy them. I now realize how bad and wrong my life is; and I see my future in dark colors.But the child is always born into a group of people among whom all the general types of situation which may arise have already been defined and corresponding rules of conduct developed, and where he has not the slightest chance of making his definitions and following his wishes without interference. Men have always lived together in groups. Whether mankind has a true herd instinct or whether groups are held together because this has worked out to advantage is of no importance. Certainly the wishes in general are such that they can be satisfied only in a society. But we have only to refer to the criminal code to appreciate the variety of ways in which the wishes of the individual may conflict with the wishes of society. And the criminal code takes no account of the many unsanctioned expressions of the wishes which society attempts to regulate by persuasion and gossip.She studied stenography and worked as private secretary in a theatrical company. She tried to face life with work as her only outlet, but the restlessness of her grief made her crave excitement. She made friends easily, but her sexual appeal made it difficult for her to fit into a commonplace social atmosphere. She married the artist to the girl he loved, after a terrible struggle to make him realize it was not herself he loved. Later he came and thanked her. “The quiet women make the best wives,” he said, “but my wife would not have loved me if you had not made me into a man. She cannot, however, give me what I get from you. I wish I could come to you once in a while?” Now the example of the physical and biological sciences shows that the human mind has the power to work out schemes which secure an adequate control over the material world and over animal and plant life by a series of observations and experiments which have been sufficiently thorough and detailed to discover series of facts and their causal connections which lead to the establishment of general chemical, physical, mechanical, and biological laws, and the same objective methods will lead to similar results in the field of social theory and practice.But if I had married the average American husband who 97plays the business game as a religion, then I should long ago have been unfaithful to him. I could never disclose myself and be happy with a man who had any interest more important to him than our relationship.... Dear we going to have another girl upstairs with us. If you could come to us that would be nice and we would enjoy it much better. Last night I was to school and when I returned home on the train I saw very nice young fellows. They make lots of fun with me—such nice gentlemen. They went from some kind of parade and when I went down from the train they took their hats off and next Wednesday I am going to see them again. Dear Friend.... I need the money I have only a nickel and that got to be enough for one week.—so you can imagine how I got to save and I need new hat—so I would like to buy me a hat for my money. You look very nice in that hat, Ha, ha. Friend, if we could only help us to run away to the West. I ask my lady at the school—she comes from California. She tell me if I have carfare, I should go there. Dear, if we can be only free then we know how to use the world. I’m not so any more like what I was in the institution—I’m now such a devil that you wouldn’t believe it. That man promised to lend me money but if he wouldn’t lend it I don’t know what I am going to do. I have not got even for the doctor and you know what it is with me? Friend, I would like to have picture from my sweetheart, but send me [back] 187the money, I going to send you money some other time for him because I only wanted to make my lady jealous. She thinks we are only so-so. Sunday School. Friend, you write to T.? I don’t, I don’t care. Wait, I going to fix myself up and I going to wait for him and then I going to wipe my nose and then I going away from him. Friend, I am so happy now that we are going to go West. We are going to take other girls with us. We go like soldiers—hurrah, hurrah, like soldiers to the war. Friend, if you answer me right away I going to answer too. When you don’t answer on four letters so I don’t think you care for me. Goodnight, Sunday School. Let the bed-bugs bite you? Friend you have fellow in the bed. You go with him to sleep? In the night when bite me some I kill him so blood runs. Write right away.Visited County Jail. Asked to see Helen. Was told by Mr. Griffin, the Sheriff, that Helen was removed by Dr. Brown, County Physician, on June 21. Mr. Griffin said that Helen is not in the County Hospital. He would make no further statement and advised that we go to Dr. Brown for information.One morning in February, 1910, he came across a small item in a Boston newspaper wherein it was stated that a milkman out in Dorchester had found a packet of one dollar bills. The milkman took them to a bank. The bank informed the milkman that the bills were counterfeit, and very obvious counterfeits at that.[Note by parole officer: When Esther was asked to translate the original of the foregoing letter ... she omitted the sentence with the word “doctor” in it.... When she had finished the letter I asked her if she had not omitted a sentence, pointing out. She read it again and said: “Oh, yes, he is the doctor what’s going to make me well, that is, my head well.” I reminded her that she had previously said he was the doctor she was keeping company with and also a doctor for women’s sickness. She was evidently quite confused but insisted that she meant all women’s sickness, and that he treated women only, not men.] 38. I had been looking for Margaret, for I knew she was a striking instance of the “unadjusted” who had within a year come with a kind of ?sthetic logic to Greenwich Village. She needed something very badly. What I heard about her which excited me was that she was twenty years old, unmarried, had never lived with a man or had any of that experience, had worked for a year on a socialist newspaper, and a socialist magazine, was a heavy drinker and a frequenter of Hell Hole, that she came from a middle class family but preferred the society of the outcasts to any other. Greenwich Village is not composed of outcasts, but it does not reject them, and it enables a man or woman who desires to know the outcast to satisfy the desire without feeling cut off from humanity. Hell Hole is a saloon in the back room of which pickpockets, grafters, philosophers, poets, revolutionists, stool-pigeons, and the riff-raff of humanity meet. Margaret loves this place and the people in it—so they told me—and there she did and said extreme things in which there was a bitter fling at decent society.And to think that he learned this engraving in a public library.Dear Friend: Forgive me that I didn’t answer your right away. Dear Friend I have such a cranky lady. If I stay here another two months with her I think I go crazy. I was very sick the other Sunday. We had 8 people and so you can immagine what work I had. Only if you would see me you would get frightened how I look; I am only bone and skin and pale in face. You would say that I go by and by in grave. Everybody ask me what’s matter with me but you know I can’t tell everybody I come from Bedford. You know when I had these 8 people to table and I have to wait on table and after they was through I get such a cramp like I had in the Tombs. My lady she was so mad at me that I leave the dishes and I went to lay down. Friend you wouldn’t know what it is when we have our home again. When anything hurts you we can get help—but this way we are like dogs—don’t you think I’m right? If you can only see this and how I worry about both of us how we should come free. Friend, I didn’t understand your letter. You want I should write to Miss R. or you do it?Dear Friend: Forgive me that I didn’t answer your right away. Dear Friend I have such a cranky lady. If I stay here another two months with her I think I go crazy. I was very sick the other Sunday. We had 8 people and so you can immagine what work I had. Only if you would see me you would get frightened how I look; I am only bone and skin and pale in face. You would say that I go by and by in grave. Everybody ask me what’s matter with me but you know I can’t tell everybody I come from Bedford. You know when I had these 8 people to table and I have to wait on table and after they was through I get such a cramp like I had in the Tombs. My lady she was so mad at me that I leave the dishes and I went to lay down. Friend you wouldn’t know what it is when we have our home again. When anything hurts you we can get help—but this way we are like dogs—don’t you think I’m right? If you can only see this and how I worry about both of us how we should come free. Friend, I didn’t understand your letter. You want I should write to Miss R. or you do it?This woman with all her hardness and bitterness cries when she speaks of her child. When I came away she acted the hostess very prettily, picked up my books for me, and showed a gentle side of her nature. “No, I haven’t minded talking of myself,” she said. “Please come again. I have no real friends—you will always find me here alone, and sad.”I started back in the restaurant life then again. I met a 130young man who seemed very interested in me. I was discouraged and disgusted with the way I was living and the restaurant life began to have its effect on me then, and I decided that I would accept his proposal and that we would get married. But one thing happened and then another until we had to postpone it and it was just a plan of his, I found out later. He had coaxed me into improper relationship with him once. Then he started running around town with other girls. When I asked him what he meant by that kind of action he said he had come to the conclusion that I was too young to know what it was to get married, that I had just better drop that idea altogether. I was discouraged and disgusted with myself that I could be led into anything so easily.... [I married a man who was very surly and associated with negro women, infected me with gonorrhoea, told the workers in the mine that I had infected him, and finally disappeared.] This girl is difficult to describe. Unusual because with only a little help she could understand herself, probably with the whole of her nature, which few women do. Has the rare gift of seeing things as they are when she wishes to see them differently. Never had much education, went through grammar school, could have gone to high school but wanted to go to work. Works in a restaurant. Earns five dollars a week with meals and tips. Lives with another girl and together they pay $3 a week for their room. Met this man on the street. “All the girls do that.” He did not mean to harm her, she thinks; there was no talk of wrong doing at first; just good friends. “He is a strong man, makes me do things, yet asks me about everything we do. I cannot quite explain it.” (The truthful feminine mind again, the civilized desire to be a comrade warring against the primitive woman who wishes to be captured. Women of 136this type are particularly sensitive, apparently, particularly to be desired by the masculine mind.)You can understand that I want to drag her out of the mire, but ... she tells me that I do not understand life. She cannot conceive why it should be considered indecent to sell one’s body in this manner. When I point out to her the end that awaits her she says in the first place it is not more harmful than working by steam for twelve to fourteen hours; in the second place, even if it were so, she enjoys life more. One must take as much as possible out of life. When I call her attention to the horrible degradation she replies that in the shop, too, we are humiliated by the foreman, and so on....Father and mother, both shiftless, begging people who will not work; father periodically deserts family, who were all in Home for the Friendless at one time and who are often destitute and a public charge. Father is now in old soldiers’ home and three of the children are in a soldiers’ orphans’ home.The first visiting teachers began work in the year 1906-1907 in New York, Boston and Hartford, Connecticut. In these cities, and later in other places, as has frequently happened in other educational experiments, the impulse came from outside the school system. Private organizations—in Boston, settlements and civic organizations; in New York, settlements and the Public Education Association; in Hartford, the director of the Psychological Laboratory—saw the need of providing a specially equipped worker to help the schools, and developed and privately maintained the work until the school board became convinced of its value and incorporated it as part of the school system. In other cities, like Rochester and Mt. Vernon, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio, the work was introduced directly by the board of education. At present in all but four cities the work is part of the city public school system. The movement has grown until at present the work has been extended to twenty-nine cities in fifteen states. In some of these “school visitor” or a similar term is used instead of visiting teacher....159In this case the social agency, the charity organization, takes the part formerly played by the large family (kinship group) and the community. The man in the case, the cause of the disorganization, is treated as insane. Pretty certainly he would not have been insane in Europe, in his original community. He would have been difficult, but the pressure of the large family and the community would have kept him within certain bounds. His violent behavior is also due in part to the fact that his wife does not behave as a member of a community or family. She resorts to American institutions, hales him into court and lands him in jail. She must do this because she has no family and community back of her, but she breaks the family solidarity. This and the fact that she practices American freedom in associating with another man and receiving presents from him make him “insane.” The wife in the European community would not have taken such liberties; community gossip would have restrained her.Dear Friend:... I received letters from my sister and they were so happy; they want me to come home soon as I get that letter. But you know how can I go. I haven’t got the money and I am not free and I don’t want to ask them about money and now its the war; they need the money themselves. My sweetheart is not killed yet, so I going to take him when I get home. He always asks about me if I’m angry at him. I rather take him than American; they only want to have girl got to have money. The poor girl they don’t want her and those which are not rich they are nothing worth. Don’t you think so friend, I am right? Don’t be angry friend. Love and kisses. pc加拿大28源码 Mr. Harriman in office. Saturday Mrs. Harriman gave Marie a pair of shoes. Monday morning, August 19th, she paid her. Marie cleared her room, etc., and at one o’clock told Mrs. Harriman she was going to the bank. Mrs. Harriman told her she was much pleased. Marie left and has not been seen or heard of since.Dr. J. The first should not be insisted on any more than the latter should be recommended....January 1915. My dearest friend: Your letter and present 183I received. I was so happy that we are so good friends always. My dear, how do you like that present what I sent you. You want to know something new. Today I am twenty years old, my birthday. When you going to have your birthday, dear,—I have big trouble about your dress; I didn’t know what to do I should help you out with it. You know that time I put different name, now I couldn’t remember what kind name I put and after while I remember I put a name Reich. So they answer I should send first $4.40 so tomorrow I go to city. So dear I helping you out much as I can.... I send you receipt from that dress you should believe how much I paid. So darling right away tomorrow I take $4. from my lady’s pocket bag and when you send me $4 I going to put them back....Dear Friend: Just today I opened letter which made me very happy. I always can hardly wait till I can fool them. Dear Friend tell me what I can do. I just received letter from my lawyer that I have to go to N. Y. and he send me bill for $100. When I receive that I din’t know where I am; 184I thought I faint when I saw the bill. Listen dear tell me where I can get the money. On 30th I have to have it. They going to start the trial. My lawyer he told it going to be bad, that we got to say the truth, but don’t say anything about the pocket-book and the little things.... But only the money, what I do about it. My uncle said he hadn’t any and no one to borrow from. I can’t fool any Jew, Ha, ha. I’m all broke down. I am afraid when the day come when I come between those young mens [lawyers] how I going to stand there, I wouldn’t have no money to pay, so I think the day come to take my life. Now answer me what you going to do. I going to wait for your letter. Address, Franz Joseph, C. K. o. f. Wein, Kaiser Palace.As another example of a general defining agency, the legal system of the state does not pretend to be more than a partial set of negative definitions. An English jurist has thus described the scope of the law: “If A is drowning and if B is present, and if B by reaching out his hand can save A, and if B does not do this, and if A drowns, then B has committed no offense.” All that the law requires of B is that he shall not push A into the water. The law is not only far from being a system capable of regulating the total life of men, but it does not even regulate the activities it is designed to regulate.March 14, 1912, Mary in office first thing in the morning to say that her father tore good overcoat into strips last night and burned it in the stove; that early this morning when they were all asleep in the house, he tore the curtains down and cut them, cut some of woman’s clothing into strips, poured kerosene over feather beds, slashed the leather seats of the four dining-room chairs and did other damage of this sort. [Threatened to buy pistol and kill Mrs. Meyer.] ... Mrs. Meyer frightened and nervous and broken-hearted over the loss.... [Later Mary ’phones that her father has come home and is sitting quietly in the kitchen.] Visited. Mr. Meyer announced that he had nothing to say for himself except that “the woman got the best of it and had everything her way.” He stated that he knew the patrol was coming for him that day and wished to “fix” things for his wife, that he “had not done much but had done something.” His attitude in the matter was one of spite and the attitude of his 155wife toward him unusually fine. Despite all that had happened she was rather gentle and almost pathetic in her statement of the case.... 89. ... Mary was an alert, boyish, attractive girl of eighteen ... at work in a department store after having reached first year in High School and reported to have been living with her weak, immoral mother, sharing the mother’s young paramour, a boy only a little older than herself....This woman realizes the faults of her nature. In looking back she thinks she flew blindly as a bird would fly, yet never without a subconscious realization of her folly. Her impulses were merely stronger than her control. She thinks she is probably more dependent upon a sex life than many women, yet intellectually she has developed wonderfully and is really a splendid woman, albeit too nervous, oversensitive, and frail.But, on the other hand, the scientist will naturally be influenced in setting and solving his problems by the appreciation that if discoveries are made in certain fields practical applications will follow. He may know, for example, that if we can discover the scarlet fever germ we can control this disease, and he may work on this problem, or he may suspect that if we knew more of the chemistry of sugar we could control cancer, and may work on that problem.The beginning of delinquency in girls is usually an impulse to get amusement, adventure, pretty clothes, favorable notice, distinction, freedom in the larger world which presents so many allurements and comparisons. The cases which I have examined (about three thousand) show that sexual passion does not play an important r?le, for the girls have usually become “wild” before the development of sexual desire, and their casual sexual relations do not usually awaken sex feeling. Their sex is used as a condition of the realization of other wishes. It is their capital. In the cases cited below Mary (case No. 64) begins by stealing to satisfy her desire for pretty clothes and “good times”, then has sexual relations for the same purpose. Katie (No. 65) begins as a vagabond and sells her body just as she does occasional work or borrows money, in order to support herself on her vagabonding tours, sexual intercourse being only a means by which freedom from school work is secured. In the case of Stella (No. 66) the sexual element is part of a joy ride, probably not the first one. Marien (No. 67) treats sexual life as a condition of her “high life”, including restaurants, moving pictures, hotels, and showy clothes. Helen (No. 68) said, “I always wanted good clothes.” To the young girl of this class sexual intercourse is something submitted to with some reluctance and embarrassment and something she is glad to be over with. Nothing can show better the small 110importance attached to it than the plain story of the many relations of Annie (No. 69). She objects only to being used by a crowd.As for us, we shall live on, each in his way—feeling somewhat unprotected, old as we are, for the absence of the parental bosoms as a refuge, but holding fast together in that common sacred memory. We will stand by each other and by Alice, try to transmit the torch in our offspring as you did in us, and when the time comes for being gathered in, I pray we may, if not all, some at least, be as ripe as you.Or, if we should submit any series of behavior problems to a set of men selected as most competent to give an opinion we should find no such unanimity as prevailed in a village community. One set of opinions would be rigoristic and hold that conformity with 79the existing code is advisable under all circumstances; another pragmatic, holding that the code may sometimes be violated. For example, in 1919, the United States Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board authorized the Psychological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University to make an investigation of the “informational and educative effect upon the public of certain motion-picture films”, and in this connection a questionnaire was sent to “medical men and women who have had most to do with problems in sex education and the actual treatment of venereal infections.” From the manuscript of this investigation I give below some of the replies received to question 13. The social worker who took her over was young and enthusiastic, undaunted by the impossible and full of faith in her own ability to get results. She transferred this faith to Ruth. She never wavered in her belief that Ruth could change her ways. She lived through stealing episodes, truancy periods, every kind of discouragement and finally found a home which did some of the things we had hoped for. Ruth’s first experience in this home was a summer trip and a glorious good time. When she came back there was little housework and a doctor’s important business to help with after school. There was social prestige in this home. The mother was a good disciplinarian and insisted on the formation of certain daily habits of living, but she took Ruth in as a member of the family and had, like the worker, supreme faith in her own ability to make Ruth go to school every day, study her lessons and keep going in the path of righteousness.I know a girl who ... extracted from her na?ve victim everything she laid her eyes on. When he stopped buying her so many things she began to treat him so shamefully that the poor boy was compelled to run away to another town, leaving all his gifts with the girl. The poor fellow was not aware that his so-called fiancée merely tricked him into buying her all kinds of jewelry and finery. He was afraid she would sue him for breach of promise and this fear caused him to leave town.But I soon noticed that she was wearing such expensive things that a boy could not afford to buy them. She had a couple of diamond rings and plenty of other jewelry. I investigated until I discovered, oh, horrible! that my sister was a prostitute....Catherine got acquainted with her brother’s sister-in-law, Jennie Sopeka, a girl ten years older, with an exceedingly bad reputation. Ever since she came from New York six years before she had led a disgracefully immoral life, was known to have a venereal disease, which was thought to be affecting her mind. Catherine said she knew nothing of this girl when she came to see her and proposed they go to Chicago “to have a nice time and nice clothes.” But Catherine left Rockford with Jennie at once. They came to Chicago and registered at the Imperial Hotel. For a week some man supported them. They then became acquainted with two junior medical students.... These boys called on them at the hotel and after a two weeks’ acquaintance took them and another girl to their rooms. All lived together for about two weeks. The police then raided the apartment, arrested the boys and Jennie and the other girl. Catherine happened to be out when the raid was made, but the following day she called at the police station to know what had become of her friends and she was detained there. The boys 107were charged with rape, as Catherine was under the age of consent. Jennie, who was going under one of her many aliases, was fined $50.00 and sent to the House of Correction. She was later accused of pandering.46. A young girl may be taught at home and church that chastity is a virtue, but the newspapers and the movies feature women in trouble along this line, now painting them as heroines, now sobbing over their mystery and pathos. Apparently they get all the attention and attention is the life blood of youth. The funny papers ridicule marriage, old maids and bashful men. The movies, magazines, street conversation and contemporary life are filled with the description of lapses that somehow turn out safely and even luxuriously. If the modern young girl practises virtue she may not believe in it. The preliminaries to wrong-doing are apparently the accepted manners of the time. When the girl herself lapses it is frequently because of lack of a uniform, authoritative definition of the social code.45. ... My sweetheart remarked that she would like to have a great deal of money. When I asked her what she would do with it, she replied that she would buy herself a lot of beautiful dresses. When I said that it was all right to have them but it ought to be all right without them too, she protested that she loved fine clothes and this to such extent, that— January 1915. My dearest friend: Your letter and present 183I received. I was so happy that we are so good friends always. My dear, how do you like that present what I sent you. You want to know something new. Today I am twenty years old, my birthday. When you going to have your birthday, dear,—I have big trouble about your dress; I didn’t know what to do I should help you out with it. You know that time I put different name, now I couldn’t remember what kind name I put and after while I remember I put a name Reich. So they answer I should send first $4.40 so tomorrow I go to city. So dear I helping you out much as I can.... I send you receipt from that dress you should believe how much I paid. So darling right away tomorrow I take $4. from my lady’s pocket bag and when you send me $4 I going to put them back....Any mobilization of energies in a plan of action means that some attitude (tendency to action) among 242the other attitudes has come to the front and subordinated the other attitudes to itself for the moment, as the result of a new definition of the situation. This definition may be the counsel of a friend, an act of memory reviving a social definition applicable to the situation, or an element of new experience defining the situation. Thus in Wilken’s case the newspaper item stating that a package of counterfeit money had been picked up identified itself with a wish that was present and seeking expression; the fact that Wilken already had some skill in drawing entered into the definition of the situation, and the result was an attitude and a plan: get money by counterfeiting.“It appears that 48, or 9.6 per cent, of the women in this study married the father of their illegitimate child either before or after confinement; 37 or 7.4 per cent married a man not the father of their child. Figures in regard to the unmarried mother are probably considerably lower than they would have been had it been possible to observe the situation longer. According 141to the German experience over 30 per cent of the mothers of illegitimate children marry before their child reaches the age of three years.” And since it has been calculated by Adele Schreiber that 50 per cent of all German women are unmarried between the ages of 20 and 30 it appears that the chance to marry on the part of the unmarried mother is very good. (In Germany, however, it is half-customary among peasants and the lower city classes to begin sexual relations before marriage and to marry when pregnancy follows.) At any rate it appears that prostitution is not recruited largely from the victims of love affairs.Consulted Judge Pearsons of the County and Juvenile Courts and Assistant States Attorney Welch. They agreed that it was imperative to detain Helen at once and decided that an arrest should be made on a charge of disorderly conduct. The examination will be made immediately so that she can be placed under medical treatment for the three weeks awaiting her trial. In the meantime her age can be verified and a decision made as to whether she will be tried on the grounds of feeble-mindedness or delinquency....Maggie was a rollicking, buxom girl of seventeen. Her parents were dead and her living relatives of doubtful reputation. Indeed all the female members of her family had “gone to the bad.” Maggie’s own escapades were many. At El Retiro she was rough, noisy, daring, fearless, impetuous, in short filled with the spirit of adventure. She did not graduate but was returned to the custody of the probation officer. While on probation she became pregnant. She refused to tell who was responsible but concocted a story of nameless attack. The court commented on her strength, her bravery, her resourcefulness, and gave her two weeks in which to find the man and bring him herself, unaided to court. Surprised but not daunted the girl succeeded. The man proved to be a soldier with a temperament much like her own; on careful examination, physical, mental, and social he was proved to be a fit husband and was permitted to marry Maggie. This social rehabilitation has restored her to club life, much to her delight. For several months she has been happy and successful. pc加拿大28源码 Further than this, the depraved family conditions which I have emphasized are due not only to bad economic conditions but to the failure of community influence. You may have very good family life with bad economic conditions but you cannot have good family life without community influence. I have shown in Chapter II how strong was the influence of the community on the family. It is not too much to say that the community made the family good. Human nature often appears at its worst in connection with pair marriages and small families. The records of the societies for the prevention of cruelty to children are filled with sickening details of the brutality of parents. An organic connection with a larger community is necessary to the maintenance of moral standards and fine sentiments. If we look, therefore, as we are forced to look, for a social agency whose influence may penetrate the family we find it in the school. The school is not a natural organization like the family, but an artificial organization capable of rapid changes and adjustments. In this respect it has almost the freedom of a scientific laboratory. It receives all children early and keeps them a relatively long time. Its function is the setting and solving of problems and the communication of information. Its representatives 214are far superior to the average parent in intelligence and understanding. If we invented any device to replace social influence lacking at other points it would be the school. It is probable that the school could be a sort of community forming the background of the family and the child and could supply the elements lacking in the home, at least to the degree of preventing in a large measure delinquency and crime, if it exercised all the influence it could conceivably exercise, and that it could, more than any other agency, socialize the family. From this standpoint the appearance of the visiting teacher in the school has the greatest importance.13. My blessed old Father: I scribble this line (which may reach you, though I should come too late) just to tell you how full of the tenderest memories and feelings about you my heart has for the last few days been filled. In that mysterious gulf of the past, into which the present will soon fall and go back and back, yours is still for me the central figure. All my intellectual life I derive from you; and though we have often seemed at odds in the expression thereof, I’m sure there’s a harmony somewhere and that our strivings will combine. What my debt to you is goes beyond all my power of estimating—so early, so penetrating and so constant has been the influence.March 14, 1912, Mary in office first thing in the morning to say that her father tore good overcoat into strips last night and burned it in the stove; that early this morning when they were all asleep in the house, he tore the curtains down and cut them, cut some of woman’s clothing into strips, poured kerosene over feather beds, slashed the leather seats of the four dining-room chairs and did other damage of this sort. [Threatened to buy pistol and kill Mrs. Meyer.] ... Mrs. Meyer frightened and nervous and broken-hearted over the loss.... [Later Mary ’phones that her father has come home and is sitting quietly in the kitchen.] Visited. Mr. Meyer announced that he had nothing to say for himself except that “the woman got the best of it and had everything her way.” He stated that he knew the patrol was coming for him that day and wished to “fix” things for his wife, that he “had not done much but had done something.” His attitude in the matter was one of spite and the attitude of his 155wife toward him unusually fine. Despite all that had happened she was rather gentle and almost pathetic in her statement of the case....January 17, 1914, Mary brought home $6 on the 14th but insisted upon $4 being returned to her, and with this she bought a very elaborate hat of black velvet and gold lace. Talked with Mary. She was very defiant and said that she would spend her money on clothing until she had something to wear. Was not satisfied with the coat that United Charities had given her from second-hand store. Said she would keep her money until she could buy a new-style coat. Told 157her that if she did so the United Charities would not help with food.The last night before he went away my husband kissed our youngest daughter so much that she is now sick from longing for him. The older girl is continually asking, “When will father come?” I am frightfully upset by the unexpected misfortune which has struck me.One day he take me out with his cousin Jim and his wife Rosie. She’s bad; she goes on the streets. She say, “Why don’t you do what he wants you? Look at me! I have good clothes,” and she showed me a diamond pin. “I get that by doing bad business.” I say, “I go to my mother if he not want to take care of me, or I go to work, and Frank go to work and we have rooms. We buy a little furniture. We not need things so fine.” And my husband, he say, “What you look like with this kind of clothes.” I say, “My mother buy me this suit, it good enough.” 23. I am between heaven and earth. I float, as it were, on a dream-cloud which carries me up at times into a glorious atmosphere, and again nearer the mucky earth, but always on, always on. I see not man, I see not the children of man, the big ME lies in my head, in my hand, in my heart. I place myself upon the throne of Kings, and tramp the dusty road, care-free. I sing to myself and call me pretty names; I place myself upon the stage, and all mankind I call upon for applause, and applause roars to me as the thunder from the heavens. I reason that mine is not inevitable stage-madness which comes to all females of my pitiful age; mine is a predestined prophecy, mine is a holy design, my outcoming is a thing to be made way for.49. Girls, get married! Even if your marriage turns out badly, you are better off than if you had stayed single. I know half a dozen women whose first marriages were failures. They got rid of their first husbands easily and have made much better marriages than they could have made if they had stayed single. Their new husbands idolize them. One of my women acquaintances who has been married four times is the most petted wife I know.Evelyn believes herself to be an illegitimate child. From her earliest recollection she was in a Catholic institution. Was placed out when she was nine years old and from that time has been in many cities, in private homes, in institutions and out again. Has had no supervision of any kind. Has sought companionship and friendliness of any one that would show her any affection. Did not seem to feel that she had done anything very wrong. It seems to be a case of society’s neglect to an orphan. She was taken to the Isolation Hospital for treatment for syphilis infection and escaped within 24 hours.I do not know what to do. The question is; how can I wean myself from the boys, my murderers.... Perhaps it would have been well for me to leave New York altogether and go to some other city?4. The problem of the sexes. In the relation between the sexes how can a maximum of reciprocal response be secured with a minimum of interference with personal interests? How is the general social 256efficiency of a group affected by the various systems of relations between man and woman? What forms of co?peration between the family and society are most favorable to the normal development of children?4. Clinicists and case workers who handle successfully difficult children taken from the schools report 220that the schools tend to accentuate rather than obviate the difficult features. Some of them feel that where unsocial and neurotic tendencies have begun to appear through bad family conditions the school is an additional influence for evil to be overcome.